Spanish archaeologists have discovered what may be one of the earliest depictions of Jesus in an ancient Egyptian tomb.
Painted on the walls of a mysterious underground stone structure in the ancient Egyptian city of Oxyrhynchus, about 100 miles south of Cairo, the image shows a young man with curly hair and dressed in a short tunic.
“He raises his hand as if making a blessing,” said Egyptologist Josep Padró, who has spent over 20 years excavating sites in the area.
In this expedition, he led a team of archaeologists from the University of Barcelona, the Catalan Egyptology Society and the University of Montpellier.
“We could be dealing with a very early image of Jesus Christ,” Padró added.
Oxyrhynchus is known for the worship of the Egyptian god of the afterlife Osiris: indeed the underground structure was located in the middle of a processional route that joins the Nile with the Osireion, the temple dedicated to Osiris.
But the painting is from much later, dating from between the sixth and seventh century A.D.
To get to the underground chamber, Padró’s team removed over 45 tons of stones.
Finally, the archaeologists reached a rectangular crypt measuring about 26 feet long and 12 feet deep. They are unsure what the function of the structure was originally, but believe it might have possibly been another temple dedicated to Osiris.
Once inside, the archaeologists found five or six coats of paint on the walls, the last of which was from the Coptic period of the first Christians.
In addition to the image of the curly man, the walls feature symbols and images of plants and inscriptions written in the Coptic language, which are currently being translated.
The first Jesus painting
“In order to carry out future campaigns, it is necessary to excavate an attached structure. A flight of well worn stairs give access to it, but researchers do not know its content yet,” the University of Barcelona said in a statement.
— This tomb, carved out of rock, could be “directly connected to Jesus’ first followers, those who knew him personally, and to Jesus himself,” according to researchers. Located beneath a modern condominium complex less than two miles south of the Old City of Jerusalem, this first-century burial, now named “patio tomb,” is only 200 feet away from a second tomb, dubbed the “Jesus Family Tomb.” Lying beneath a garden area in the same condominium complex, the burial was discovered in 1980. It contained 10 ossuaries, six of them inscribed with names associated with Jesus and his family. Critics dismissed the synchronicity of names as mere coincidence. “The object of our investigation was to determine whether the ‘patio tomb,’ still intact, might contain names or other evidence that would provide for us further data that might conceivably shed light on the adjacent ‘garden tomb’ with its intriguing cluster of names,” James D. Tabor, professor and chair of religious studies at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte, wrote in a preliminary report published online in the “The Bible and Interpretation” website. He investigated the “patio tomb” with documentary filmmaker Simcha Jacobovici.
In 2010, Tabor and Jacobovici entered the sealed tomb without actually opening it. They had obtained a license from the Israel Antiquities Authority to explore it through a minimally invasive procedure. Using 8-inch, custom-made diamond tooth drills, the team drilled two holes into the basement floor above the burial. A robotic arm was custom made so that it could be introduced into the tomb through the holes. The robotic arm not only had a main camera mounted on its tip, but a snake camera with a light that could extend about 4 feet beyond the main probe “to allow filming of several of the ossuaries that were deep in the recesses of the niches,” said Tabor. The camera also had the capability of shooting laser beams to obtain micro-centimeter measurements.
The probe was successful and the researchers were able to reach all areas of the tomb. Typical of Jerusalem in the period from 20 B.C. until 70 A.D, the tomb had a single central square chamber with a very shallow “standing pit” area. It contained nine carved burial niches with skeletal remains and several limestone ossuaries, or bone boxes.
One ossuary was finely carved with a decoration which the researchers believe is “a clear image of a fish, complete with tail, fins, and scales.” According to Tabor, it has “a stick-like human figure with an over-sized head coming out of its mouth.” He interpreted the drawing as a representation of the biblical story of Jonah and the “big fish.” In the earliest gospel materials, the “sign of Jonah,” as mentioned by Jesus, has been interpreted as a symbol of his resurrection. “As Jonah was in the fish for three days and three nights, but emerged alive, Jesus would likewise emerge from the tomb/death,” wrote Tabor. Jonah images only appear in the third and fourth centuries A.D., but never earlier, given the prohibition within Judaism of making images of people or animals. In this view, the fish would represent the oldest Christian art ever discovered, predating the earliest Christian symbol in the catacombs of Rome by at least 200 years. It would also represent the first archeological evidence related to faith in Jesus’ resurrection from the dead — “presumably by his contemporary 1st-century followers,” said Tabor.
Another finely decorated ossuary contained an intriguing four-word Greek inscription. There are several ways to read the inscription, but according to Tabor, almost all of them have to do with resurrection, some linking directly to Jesus. The most likely readings are: “The Divine Jehovah raises up from (the dead)” or “The Divine Jehovah raises up to the Holy Place” or “God, Jehovah, Raise up! Raise up!” or “Lord, Jesus, Rise up! Rise up!” “We are dealing here with a family or clan that is bold enough to write out the holy name of God in a tomb, with a declaration about ‘raising up’ or resurrection — something totally unparalleled in any of the 900 tombs from the period known in Jerusalem,” wrote Tabor.
According to Tabor, the family buried in the tomb was undoubtedly Jewish. Apart from the Greek epitaph and fish image, “the style of the tomb, the ornamentation of the ossuaries, and everything else about it is nothing out of the ordinary,” he said. Yet, taken together, the fish image and the inscription represents the earliest archaeological evidence of faith in Jesus’ resurrection, the first witness to a saying of Jesus that predates the New Testament gospels, and the oldest Christian art ever discovered. “We are convinced that the best explanation for these unusual epigraphic features is its proximity to the Jesus family tomb,” wrote Talbot. “What we apparently have is a family connected to the Jesus movement who reaches beyond the standard burial norms of the Jewish culture of the period to express itself individually in these unique ways,” he said.